Om læder, skind & pels

Opmåling
Kvadratfod (kvf)
 (0,0985 m²) – eller: 30,48x30,48cm - 12x12 tommer = 144 Kvadrattommer - Skind og læder sælges oftes pr. kvadratfod og nogle gangen i m2. Hvis der stå 50 kr pr. kvf skal man gange (X) det med skindet/læderet størrelse som er påtrykt.

Tykkelse

Skind og læder kan købes i forskellige tykkelser, hvoraf gedeskind, lammeskind, kalveskind fås i meget tyndt 0,035mm og op og kernelæder fortrækkes tykt og kraftigt fra 0,8mm op til 5mm

Anilin læder
Er den mest naturlige læder/skind, med naturlig synlig overflade, men er mindre modstandsdygtige over for snavs. Man bruger de bedste skind til anilin.

Semi anilin læder

Er en blanding af anilin og pigmenteret læder - den har en let overfladebehandling.

Pigmenteret læder
er den mest holdbare, men er mindre naturligt i udseende med en polymerbelægning (dækfarve) 

... så hvis du køber en læder sofa og du har familie med unge børn, er  en anilin sofa sandsynligvis ikke for dig! Hvis man ser nærmere på prisetiketten på lædersofen eller beskrivelsen af varen, bør det stå, hvad type læder er det - ellers spørg!

Opdeling af skindet.
Forpart, er lidt ujævn i læderet på grund af nakkefolderne.
Croupon/Dobbelt-crouponen er det bedste udskæring, den er fast men der kan forekomme brændmærker da det er den bagerste del af dyret.
Siden er lidt af bugen og lidt af ryggen, hvoraf ryggen er fast og bugen er elastik. Siden er lang og kan bruges til lange remme.
Hechten/dobbelt-hechte er skåret fra ryggen og kommer i lange stykker og købes tit en en kraftig tykkelse. Bruges til sadler.
Bugen er tit tynd og flexible, er tit brugt til små punge.

Typer af skind
Nubuck - Anilin farvet læder, som er blevet let slebet på narv spiden for at skabe en fløjlsagtig finish eller lur. I nogle tilfælde kan man stadig se narven mønstre. 
Ruskind/
Et split, der er blevet slebet til at skabe en markant lur. Lur kan variere i udseende, men er ikke så fint som den lur på nubuck på grund af den løsere fiber struktur.


 

Full grain pigmented leather The grain surface is left intact before applying the surface coating.

Pull-up leather
(also known as waxy or oily pull-up) A leather with a natural appearance which lightens in colour when stretched during wear to produce a unique worn-in effect with time.

(also known as waxy or oily pull-up) A leather with a natural appearance which lightens in colour when stretched during wear to produce a unique worn-in effect with time.

 Corrected grain pigmented leather
The grain surface is abraded to remove imperfections before the surface coating is applied. A decorative grain pattern is then embossed into the surface.
Anilin læder

Finished split leather
The middle or lower section of a hide with a polymer coating applied and embossed to mimic a grain leather. Finished splits should only be used in low stress applications because they are weaker than grain leather.

Antique grain (two-tone or rub-off) A special surface effect has been created to mimic the unique 'worn' appearance of traditional leathers. This is achieved by applying a contrasting top-coat which is applied unevenly or partially rubbed off to reveal a paler underlying colour.

Nubuck

Aniline dyed leather which has been lightly abraded on the grain surface to create a velvety finish or nap. In some cases the grain pattern is still visible. The nap is very fine because of the tight fibre structure in the grain layer.

Suede

A split which has been abraded to create a distinctive nap. The nap can vary in appearance but is not as fine as the nap on nubuck because of the looser fibre structure.

Terms

Full grain refers to leather which has not been sanded or buffed.

Sanding or buffing removes surface imperfections from the leather, except in the case of nubuck where the buffing is very light.

Embossing is a process that heat presses an artificial grain pattern into the leather. If not sanded or buffed, these leathers are still considered to be full grain. This process is usually applied to pigmented leathers but can also be used on aniline and semi-aniline.

See the glossary for more terms.


HOW TO TELL

When it comes to identifying the type of leather you cannot beat proper training and experience, but with care and patience anyone can do it!

How does it feel for you?

Aside from appearance, how the leather feels and handles is a big clue to its type. Aniline leathers feel like real skin - light and flexible - whilst a heavily pigmented (protected) leather can feel rather like plastic.

Leather upholstery in cars is almost exclusively pigmented to protect it from years of heavy use, as are domestic upholstery leathers. One of the current challenges facing the leather industry is to produce lighter, aniline type leathers that have the durability and resistance to soiling that pigmented leathers have.

Aniline Leather

Notice how the creases are very distinct because they have not been filled out by a surface coating. The grain pattern depends on the species (sheep in this case) and which part of the animal it came from.

Semi-aniline

leather Ignore the slightly different grain pattern (this is a different breed of sheep) but notice that the creases are less distinct because they've been partially filled by the surface coating, as if the surface had been covered with a thin coat of paint.

Pigmented leather

Notice how the creases of the grain pattern have been filled out as if the surface had been given a few coats of paint. In this case the grain pattern you see was embossed onto the finished leather. You couldn't tell if this was full grain or corrected grain without examining it under a microscope. Although this sample has a matt finish pigmented leathers can also be shiny.

Finished split

You need to find a cut or torn edge to distinguish a finished split from full grain or corrected grain pigmented leather. In a grain leather (top) the fibres are much more tightly packed near the grain surface, while in a finished split (middle) the fibres are equally loosely packed all the way to the pigment coating.

The lack of a grain layer is also apparent if a finished split is torn.

We all fall for the sales talk at some time - some of us have even given the sales talk - and it's not nice. When you buy a leather item you expect quality, durability...and expect it to be leather too!

See the What is Leather page to find out all about the legal and British standards definitions of leather. As you will see, things are not always what they seem...

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